PTEN mutations occur in 5-14% of colorectal cancers. PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene, and loss of PTEN results in upregulation of the PI3K/ AKT pathway. PTEN loss of expression is observed with KRAS, BRAF, and PIK3CA mutations. In retrospective studies, PTEN loss is associated with decreased sensitivity of colorectal cancer tumors to anti-EGFR antibodies. PTEN loss is associated with lack of benefit of the anti-EGFR antibody, cetuximab.