ASXL1 regulates epigenetic functions including histone and chromatin modifications. ASXL1 mutations have been reported in 40-50% of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia(CMML), 20% of myelodsyplastic syndromes, 20-35% of primary myelofibrosis, 15% of systemic mastocytosis, 30% of patients with secondary acute myeloid leukemia and 5-10% of primary acute myeloid leukemia. ASXL1 mutations have also been described in CHIP and CCUS. In CMML, missense mutations of ASXL1 appear to be less common (less than 10% of cases). Nonsense and frameshift mutations (but apparently not missense mutations) of ASXL1 have been reported to carry an adverse prognostic impact in cases of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. In addition, ASXL1 mutations have been associated with adverse outcome in myelodysplasia, primary myelofibrosis and systemic mastocytosis. Among cases of AML, ASXL1 mutations appear to be associated with adverse prognosis in some subtypes of AML according to some, but not all, studies. ASXL1 mutations may coexist with mutations of splicing factor components, TET2 and RUNX1; for example, co-existence of U2AF1 and ASXL1 mutations have been described in CMML and primary myelofibrosis; While in AML, ASXL1 mutations have been reported to be exclusive of NPM1 mutations according to some studies.