BRAF is part of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and V600E is an activating mutation of BRAF. The BRAF V600E mutation has been reported in 45% of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, which comprise 80 % of all thyroid cancers. Presence of a BRAF p.Val600Glu (V600E) mutation is highly specific for papillary thyroid carcinoma and is only rarely associated with the follicular variant PTC, other thyroid neoplasms, or nodular goiters. Anaplastic thyroid carcinomas are rare, highly aggressive, undifferentiated tumors that comprise 1% to 2% of all thyroid cancers in the United States. Well-differentiated papillary thyroid cancer, in which BRAF V600 mutations are an early and common driver mutation, precedes or coexists with approximately 50% of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Between 20% and 50% of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas harbor activating BRAF V600 mutations, with unknown prognostic significance. The possible prognostic impact of BRAF V600E mutations in carcinoma of the thyroid continues to be studied.