When mutated, HRAS can act as an oncogene, causing normal cells to become cancerous. Somatic HRAS mutations have been associated with some cases of bladder, thyroid and kidney cancers and in nevi. HRAS mutations are rarely found in the breast and the HRAS Q61R mutation has not been previously reported in this cancer. Inferring the clinical evidence seen in melanoma, downstream pathway MEK inhibitors may be a feasible treatment strategy. The effectiveness of MEK inhibitors for HRAS-mutant thyroid and bladder cancer patients has not yet been investigated.