PTEN is an obligate haplo-insufficient tumor suppressor gene and is commonly mutated in a large number of cancers. It negatively regulates intracellular levels of Phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) in cells and functions as a tumor suppressor by negatively regulating AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. PTEN somatic point mutations are infrequent, but allelic loss or altered expression is seen in approximately 20% and 40% of the melanoma cases, respectively. Clinical trials using PI3K-beta inhibitor are available for patients with PTEN-deficient tumors.
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