NRAS codon(s) 12, 13, 61, 146 any
RAS mutations (HRAS, NRAS and KRAS) are found in all epithelial thyroid malignancies. The frequency of HRAS mutations in thyroid carcinomas is 4%. RAS mutations are identified in 10–20% of papillary carcinomas, 40–50% of follicular carcinomas and 20–40% of poorly differentiated and anaplastic carcinomas .
Gunderson LL et al . Revised TN categorization for colon cancer based on national survival outcomes data. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jan 10;28(2):264-71
JM Jessup, LL et al.. 2010 Staging System for Colon and Rectal Carcinoma. Ann. Surg. Oncol 2011 Mar 29;18(6)1513-1517
De Roock et al Effects of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA mutations on the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective consortium analysis.Lancet Oncol. 2010 Aug;11(8):753-62
Nikiforov Y. Molecular diagnostics of thyroid tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2011 May;135(5):569-77
Curtin et al .Distinct sets of genetic alterations in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2005 Nov 17 ; 353 (20) :2135-47
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