NRAS codon(s) 12, 13, 61, 146 any
Somatic mutations in NRAS have been found in approximately 13–25% of all malignant melanomas. The result of these mutations is constitutive activation of NRAS signaling pathways. NRAS mutations are found in all melanoma subtypes, but may be slightly more common in melanomas derived from chronic sun-damaged (CSD) skin . Currently, there are no direct anti-NRAS therapies available.
Gunderson LL et al . Revised TN categorization for colon cancer based on national survival outcomes data. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Jan 10;28(2):264-71
JM Jessup, LL et al.. 2010 Staging System for Colon and Rectal Carcinoma. Ann. Surg. Oncol 2011 Mar 29;18(6)1513-1517
De Roock et al Effects of KRAS, BRAF, NRAS, and PIK3CA mutations on the efficacy of cetuximab plus chemotherapy in chemotherapy-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer: a retrospective consortium analysis.Lancet Oncol. 2010 Aug;11(8):753-62
Nikiforov Y. Molecular diagnostics of thyroid tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2011 May;135(5):569-77
Curtin et al .Distinct sets of genetic alterations in melanoma. N Engl J Med. 2005 Nov 17 ; 353 (20) :2135-47
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